**SECTION**** A: MECHANICS**

**Scientific Method**

- Investigate the factors which might affect the period of a simple pendulum.
- Use graphs of experimental data from simple pendulum;
- Draw a ‘line of best fit’ for a set of plotted values;
- Determine the gradient of a straight line graph.

*Measurement*

- Express the result of a measurement or a calculation to an appropriate number of significant figures;
- Discuss the possible types and sources of error in any measurement;
- Use a variety of instruments to measure different quantities;
- Assess the suitability of instruments on the basis of sensitivity, accuracy and range;
- Apply the formula for density p=m/v.

- Distinguish between scalar vectors and give examples of each;
- Use scale diagrams to find the resultant of two vectors;
- Calculate the resultant of vectors which are parallel, anti-parallel and perpendicular;
- Explain that a single vector is equivalent to two other vectors at right angles.

**Statics**

*Forces, F*

- Explain the effects of forces;
- Identify types of forces;
- Determine the weight of objects;
- Show how derived quantities and their related units are produced;
- Recall the special names given to the units for some derived quantities;
- Express derived units using the index notation;
- Identify situations in which the application of a force will result in a turning effect.

*Turning Forces*

- Define the moment of a force T;
- Apply the principle of moments;
- Explain the action of common tools and devices as levers;
- Determine the location of the centre of gravity of a body;
- Relate the stability of an object to the position of its centre of gravity and its weight.

*Deformation*

- Investigate the relationship between extension and force;
- Solve problems using Hooke’s law.

**Dynamics: Motion in a Straight Line**

- Define the terms: distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration;
- Apply displacement-time and velocity-time graphs.

*Aristotle*

- Discuss Aristotle’s arguments in support of his “law of motion”, that is vαF.

*Newton’s Laws*

- State Newton’s three laws of motion;
- Use Newton’w laws to explain dynamic systems;
- Define linear momentum;
- Describe situations that demonstrate the law of conservation of linear momentum;
- Apply the law of conservation of linear momentum.

**Energy**

*Forms of energy*

- Define Energy;
- Identify the various forms of energy;
- Describe the energy transformations in a given situation;
- Apply the relationship: work = force x displacement;
- Discuss the use of energy from alternative sources, and its importance to the Caribbean.

*Potential Energy, E _{p}*

- Define potential energy;
- Calculate the change in graviational potential energy using: ΔE
_{p }= mgΔh.

*Kinetic Energy, E _{k}*

- Define kinetic energy;
- Calculate kinetic energies using the expression: E
_{k }= ½ mv^{2}.

*Conservation*

- Apply the law of conservation of energy.

*Power, P*

- Define power and apply definition;
- Explain the term efficiency;
- Calculate efficiency in given situations.

**Hydrostatics**

- Define pressure and apply definition;
- Relate the pressure at a point in a fluid to its depth and the density;
- Apply Archimedes’ principle to predict whether a body would float or sink in a given fluid.

**SECTION B: THERMAL PHYSICS AND KINETIC THEORY**

**Nature of Heat**

- Differentiate between caloric and kinetic theories of heat as they existed in the eighteenth century;
- Discuss the role of Joule’s experiments in establishing the principle of conservation of energy.

**Macroscopic Properties and Phenomena**

*Temperature, T*

- Relate temperature to the direction of net thermal energy transfer;
- Identify physical properties which may vary with temperature and may be used as a basis for measuring temperature;
- Relate the use of a thermometer to its design;
- Define the fixed points on the Celsius scale;
- Relate the temperature of a body to the kinetic energy of molecules.

*Phases of Matter*

- Distinguish among solids, liquids and gases;
- Use the kinetic theory to explain the different macroscopic properties of solids, liquids and gases.

*Expansion*

- Explain observations of the effects of thermal expansion.

*Gas Laws*

- Relate graphs of pressure or volume against temperature to establishment of the Kelvin temperature scale;
- Use the relationship between Kelvin and Celsius scale. T/K = 0 degrees C+ 273;
- Apply the gas laws;
- Give the qualitative explanations of the gas laws in terms of kinetic theory.

**Thermal Measurements**

*Specific Heat Capacity, c*

- Distinguish between specific heat capacity, ‘c’ and heat capacity ‘C’;
- Apply the relationship E
_{H }= mcθ or E_{H}= mcΔT; - Determine the specific heat capacity of metals and liquids.

*Specific Latent Heat, l*

- Demonstrate that temperature remains constant during a phase change;
- Apply the relationship E
_{H }= ml; - Determine the specific latent heat of vaporization l
_{v}, and fusion, l_{f}of water; - Distinguish between evaporation and boiling.

**Transfer of Thermal Energy**

- Explain the transfer of thermal energy by conduction;
- Explain the transfer of thermal energy by convection;
- Explain the transfer of thermal energy by radiation;
- Conduct experiments to investigate the factors on which absorption and emission of radiation depend;
- Recall that good absorbers are good emitters;
- Relate the principles of thermal energy transfer to the design of other devices.

** SECTION C: WAVES AND OPTICS**

**Wave Motion**

*Types of Waves*

- Differentiate between types of waves.

*Wave Parameters*

- Apply speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude;
- Represent transverse and longitudinal waves in displacement position and displacement-time graphs.

**Sound**

*Production and **Propagation*

- Describe how sound is produced and propagated in a medium;
- Relate the terms ‘pitch’ and ‘loudness’ to wave parameters.

*Speed of Sound*

- Apply the speed of sound to practical situations;
- Cite evidence that sound waves reflect, refract, diffract and interfere;
- Describe the use of ultrasound.

**Electromagnetic Waves**

- State the properties of e.m. waves;
- Differentiate between types of e.m.waves in terms of their wavelengths;
- Identify a source and use of each type of e.m.wave.

**Light Waves**

*Wave Particle Duality*

- Compare the rival theories of light held by scientists;
- Conduct a Young’s double slit experiment to show that light is a wave.

*Rays of Light*

- Explain why diffraction of light is not normally observed;
- Apply the principle that light travels in straight lines.

*Reflection*

- Apply the laws of reflection;
- Describe the formation of images in a plane mirror.

*Refraction*

- Give examples of observations which indicate that light can be refracted;
- Describe the refraction of light rays;
- Describe how a prism may be used to produce a spectrum;
- Apply Snell’s Law.

*Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection*

- Explain ‘critical angle’ and ‘total internal reflection’;
- Relate critical angles to total internal reflection;
- Draw diagrams illustrating applications of total internal reflection.

**Lenses**

*Action of Lenses*

- Illustrate the effect of converging and diverging lenses on a beam of parallel rays;
- Define the terms: principal axis, principal focus, focal length, focal plane, magnification.

*Image Formation*

- Differentiate between real and virtual images;
- Apply the equations for magnification;
- Determine the focal length of a converging lens.

**SECTION D: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

**Electrostatics**

*Electric Charge, Q*

- Explain the charging of objects;
- Describe the forces that electric charges exert on each other;
- Explain charging by induction.

*Electric Fields*

- Define an electric field;
- Describe one hazard and one useful application of static charge.

**Current Electricity**

- Distinguish between conductors and insulators;
- State than an electric current in a metal consists of a flow of electrons;
- Differentiate between electron flow and conventional current;
- State the unit of electrical current;
- apply the relationship Q= It.

*Alternating Current*

- Differentiate between direct and alternating currents;
- Analyse current-time or voltage time graphs.

**Electrical Quantities**

*Power, P and Energy, E*

- Cite examples of conversion of electrical energy to other forms and vice versa;
- Apply the relationship V= E/Q;
- Apply the relationship P= IV;
- Discuss the importance of conserving electrical energy and the means of doing so.

**Circuit and Components**

*Circuit Diagrams*

- Use symbols to construct circuit diagrams;
- Differentiate between series and parallel circuits.

*Cells*

- Explain the functions of the various parts of a zinc-carbon cell;
- Distinguish between primary and secondary cells;
- Draw a circuit diagram to show how a secondary cell can be recharged.

*I-V Relationships*

- Investigate the relationship between current and potential difference.

*Resistance, R*

- Explain the concept of resistance;
- Apply the relationship R= V/I;
- Explain why it is necessary for an ammeter to have a very low resistance;
- Explain why it is necessary for a voltmeter to have very high resistance;
- Solve problems involving series and parallel resistance;
- Solve problems involving series, parallel and series parallel circuits.

*Electricity in the Home*

- Discuss the reasons for using parallel connections of domestic appliances;
- Explain the purpose of a fuse or circuit breaker and the earth wire;
- Select a fuse or circuit breaker of a suitable current rating for a given appliance;
- State the adverse effects of connecting electrical appliances to incorrect or fluctuating voltage supplies.

**Electronics**

- Describe how a semi-conductor dioxide can be used in half wave rectification;
- Differentiate between direct current from batteries and rectified alternating current by a consideration of V-t graphs for both cases.

*Logic Gates*

- Recall the symbols for AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR logic gates;
- State the function of truth gates with the aid of truth tables;
- Analyse the circuits involving the combinations of not more than three logic gates;
- Discuss the impact of electronic and technological advances on society.

**Magnetism**

*Permanent Magnets*

- Differentiate between magnetic and non-magnetic materials;
- Explain how a magnet can attract an unmagnetised object;
- Distinguish between materials used to make “permanent” and “temporary” magnets;
- Identify the poles of a magnetic dipole.

*Magnetic Forces*

- Investigate the forces between magnetic poles;
- Define a magnetic field;
- Map magnetic fields.

**Electromagnetism**

- Conduct simple experiments to investigate the magnetic field pattern around current carrying conductors;
- Apply suitable rules which relate the direction of current flow to the direction of the magnetic field;
- Describe a commercial application of an electromagnet.

* Electromagnetic Force*

- Conduct an experiment which demonstrates the -existence of a force on a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
- Sketch the resultant magnetic flux pattern when a current carrying wire is placed perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field;
- Apply Flemming’s left hand motor rule;
- Identify factors that affect the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

*Motors*

- Explain the action of a D.C motor.

*Induced e.m.f*

- Describe simple activities which demonstrate an induced e.m.f;
- Conduct simple experiments to show the magnitude of an induced e.m.f;
- Predict the direction of induced current given the direction of motion of the conductor and that of the magnetic field;
- Explain the action of the A.C. generator.

*Transformers*

- Explain the principle of transformation of a transformer;
- State the advantages of using a.c. for transferring electrical energy;
- Apply the ideal transformer formula P
_{out}= P_{in}

**SECTION E: THE PHYSICS OF THE ATOM**

**Models of the Atom**

- Describe the work done in establishing the modern view of the atom;
- Describe the Geiger-Marsden experiment.

**Structure of the Atom**

*Particles in the Atom*

- Sketch the structure of simple atoms;
- Compare the mass and charge of the electron with the mass and charge of the proton;
- Explain why the atom is normally neutrally stable;
- Apply the relationship: A = Z+N;
- Explain what is meant by the term “isotope”;
- Relate the shell model of the atom to the periodic table.

**Radioactivity**

*Radioactive Emissions*

- Describe Marie Curie’s work in the field of radioactivity;
- State the nature of the three types of radioactive emissions;
- Describe experiments to compare the ranges of α, β and γ emission;
- Describe the appearance of the tracks of radioactive emissions in a cloud chamber;
- Predict the effects of magnetic and electric fields on the motion of α and β particles and γ rays;
- Interpret nuclear reactions in the standard form;
- Conduct an activity to demonstrate the nature of radioactive decay;
- Recall that the decay process is independent of the conditions external to the nucleus.

*Half-life*

- Use graphs of random decay to show that such processes have constant half-lives;
- Solve problems involving half-life.

*Radioisotopes*

- discuss the useful applications of radioisotopes.

*Nuclear Energy*

- Relate the release of energy in a nuclear reaction to a change in mass;
- Cite arguments for and against the utilisation of nuclear energy.