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Re: [RFC PATCH 0/2] ARM: Fix unparseable signal frame with CONFIG_IWMMXT

On Mon, Jun 26, 2017 at 05:36:39PM +0100, Dave Martin wrote:
> On Mon, Jun 26, 2017 at 03:40:01PM +0100, Russell King - ARM Linux wrote:
> > I'd hope that the kernel implementation is not used as an example - it
> > most certainly is not an example, as it does no parsing of the data
> > structures.  As the kernel is responsible for creating the layout, it
> > expects the exact same layout coming back in, and any deviation from
> > that results in the task being forcefully exited.
> Unfortunately, things that are not intended as examples do still get
> used.  We can argue that's the userspace folks' fault, but it still
> creates de facto ABI...

Given that the contents of the structure depend on kernel configuration
symbols, it's impossible for userspace to use it unless they also have
some kind of static configuration as well.

> > Basically, the layout that the kernel creates is entirely dependent on
> > the kernel configuration, and any scheme that replicates what the kernel
> > is doing in the restore paths is doomed to failure.  (However, that's
> > not to say userspace isn't, but if it is, userspace breaks if the kernel
> > configuration is changed.  I don't regard that as a kernel-induced
> > userspace regression though - it's a bit like expecting EABI userspace
> > to work with OABI-only supporting kernel.)

The kernel gained the tagged-list approach in 2006, and didn't start
preserving the VFP state until 2010.

> I'm actually a little confused by, say,
> Assuming I'm looking in the right place here, glibc effectively uses its
> own private format for uc_regspace -- maybe there is kernel history
> here I'm not aware of, or maybe it's not even trying to be compatible.

It looks to me like glibc is expecting:

- If the HWCAP includes VFP
   - 64 bytes of d8-d15 registers
   - fpscr
- If the HWCAP includes iWMMXT
   - 48 bytes of iWMMXT state

The kernel has never used that (partial!) format - note that it seems
to omit d0-d7 from the context.

Given that setcontext()'s man page says:

       The  function setcontext() restores the user context pointed at by ucp.
       A successful call does  not  return.   The  context  should  have  been
       obtained  by  a  call  of getcontext(), or makecontext(3), or passed as
       third argument to a signal handler.

it seems that for this to work in the signal handler case, there would
have to be some kind of translation from the kernel format to glibc's
format when calling into the signal handler - maybe there is... but
what you point out is definitely incompatible with the kernel today,
and has always been incompatible.

If there's no translation going on, then this has never worked, and so
there's no possibility of a regression!

> Also, libunwind does not appear to attempt to parse uc_regspace:

Yea, it's just looking at the integer register set.

> I've not fully understood the gdb code, but there is a comment in
> arm-linux-tdep.c that suggests that uc_regspace is not processed (nor do
> I see any other mention of uc_regspace or things like VFP_MAGIC:
> /* The VFP or iWMMXt registers may be saved on the stack, but there's
> 	no reliable way to restore them (yet).  */

It sounds like no one implemented the userspace side of this then!

> Do you know of any userspace parser of uc_regspace?
> All I have so far is this, from the reporter of the bug:

Hmm, well, it seems like they're the first to test this feature, which
is pretty sad.

> Should we enforce the same on sigreturn, or be more tolerant?

I've been thinking about that, and haven't come to a decision.  There
is the matter that more complex parsing is harder to be correct (think
about out of bounds 'size' values, although that can be mitigated by
ensuring that size is numerically correct for the magic ID - but then
what if we have a wrong ID, or the size is incorrect for the magic ID?)

> There is some merit to this, since the effect cannot be achieved 100%
> safely in any other way.  However, it may require the caller to
> manufacture a sigframe from scratch.  If so, it may be natural to
> omit the IWMMXT block (and indeed the VFP block, if the caller
> doesn't care what's in the VFP registers at the destination).

As you can see, the kernel hasn't really catered for manufactured
sigframes - it expects to see the same sigframe that it wrote out.
Whether that's reasonable or not, I'm not sure, but no one's
complained about it yet!

> The DynamoRIO example above takes a signal to generate a "template"
> sigframe, which is then modified to produce the desired result.
> Putting aside the issue of whether this is an abuse of sigreturn
> or not (and the question of why they are doing it at all), this
> seems a reasonable approach -- which they also apparently use for
> x86.  So their sigframe will contain the dummy iWMMXt block, but
> it will have a valid tag if we patch the kernel to write one.

Bear in mind that parsing the data in uc_regspace is going to be
hardware specific, it's hard to do it in a generic way.  Debuggers
necessarily have to know the intricate hardware details of the
system its running on, so it's reasonable for them to poke about
in that area.  I'm not so sure about generic applications though.

Anyway, I don't have time this evening to continue this reply... so
I'll send it anyway. :)

RMK's Patch system:
FTTC broadband for 0.8mile line: currently at 9.6Mbps down 400kbps up
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