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2.10.1 typedef arelent

This is the structure of a relocation entry:

typedef enum bfd_reloc_status
  /* No errors detected.  */

  /* The relocation was performed, but there was an overflow.  */

  /* The address to relocate was not within the section supplied.  */

  /* Used by special functions.  */

  /* Unsupported relocation size requested.  */

  /* Unused.  */

  /* The symbol to relocate against was undefined.  */

  /* The relocation was performed, but may not be ok - presently
     generated only when linking i960 coff files with i960 b.out
     symbols.  If this type is returned, the error_message argument
     to bfd_perform_relocation will be set.  */

typedef struct reloc_cache_entry
  /* A pointer into the canonical table of pointers.  */
  struct bfd_symbol **sym_ptr_ptr;

  /* offset in section.  */
  bfd_size_type address;

  /* addend for relocation value.  */
  bfd_vma addend;

  /* Pointer to how to perform the required relocation.  */
  reloc_howto_type *howto;


Here is a description of each of the fields within an arelent:

The symbol table pointer points to a pointer to the symbol associated with the relocation request. It is the pointer into the table returned by the back end’s canonicalize_symtab action. See Symbols. The symbol is referenced through a pointer to a pointer so that tools like the linker can fix up all the symbols of the same name by modifying only one pointer. The relocation routine looks in the symbol and uses the base of the section the symbol is attached to and the value of the symbol as the initial relocation offset. If the symbol pointer is zero, then the section provided is looked up.

The address field gives the offset in bytes from the base of the section data which owns the relocation record to the first byte of relocatable information. The actual data relocated will be relative to this point; for example, a relocation type which modifies the bottom two bytes of a four byte word would not touch the first byte pointed to in a big endian world.

The addend is a value provided by the back end to be added (!) to the relocation offset. Its interpretation is dependent upon the howto. For example, on the 68k the code:

        char foo[];
                return foo[0x12345678];

Could be compiled into:

        linkw fp,#-4
        moveb @#12345678,d0
        extbl d0
        unlk fp

This could create a reloc pointing to foo, but leave the offset in the data, something like:

offset   type      value
00000006 32        _foo

00000000 4e56 fffc          ; linkw fp,#-4
00000004 1039 1234 5678     ; moveb @#12345678,d0
0000000a 49c0               ; extbl d0
0000000c 4e5e               ; unlk fp
0000000e 4e75               ; rts

Using coff and an 88k, some instructions don’t have enough space in them to represent the full address range, and pointers have to be loaded in two parts. So you’d get something like:

        or.u     r13,r0,hi16(_foo+0x12345678)
        ld.b     r2,r13,lo16(_foo+0x12345678)
        jmp      r1

This should create two relocs, both pointing to _foo, and with 0x12340000 in their addend field. The data would consist of:

offset   type      value
00000002 HVRT16    _foo+0x12340000
00000006 LVRT16    _foo+0x12340000

00000000 5da05678           ; or.u r13,r0,0x5678
00000004 1c4d5678           ; ld.b r2,r13,0x5678
00000008 f400c001           ; jmp r1

The relocation routine digs out the value from the data, adds it to the addend to get the original offset, and then adds the value of _foo. Note that all 32 bits have to be kept around somewhere, to cope with carry from bit 15 to bit 16.

One further example is the sparc and the a.out format. The sparc has a similar problem to the 88k, in that some instructions don’t have room for an entire offset, but on the sparc the parts are created in odd sized lumps. The designers of the a.out format chose to not use the data within the section for storing part of the offset; all the offset is kept within the reloc. Anything in the data should be ignored.

        save %sp,-112,%sp
        sethi %hi(_foo+0x12345678),%g2
        ldsb [%g2+%lo(_foo+0x12345678)],%i0

Both relocs contain a pointer to foo, and the offsets contain junk.

offset   type      value
00000004 HI22      _foo+0x12345678
00000008 LO10      _foo+0x12345678

00000000 9de3bf90     ; save %sp,-112,%sp
00000004 05000000     ; sethi %hi(_foo+0),%g2
00000008 f048a000     ; ldsb [%g2+%lo(_foo+0)],%i0
0000000c 81c7e008     ; ret
00000010 81e80000     ; restore

The howto field can be imagined as a relocation instruction. It is a pointer to a structure which contains information on what to do with all of the other information in the reloc record and data section. A back end would normally have a relocation instruction set and turn relocations into pointers to the correct structure on input - but it would be possible to create each howto field on demand. enum complain_overflow

Indicates what sort of overflow checking should be done when performing a relocation.

enum complain_overflow
  /* Do not complain on overflow.  */

  /* Complain if the value overflows when considered as a signed
     number one bit larger than the field.  ie. A bitfield of N bits
     is allowed to represent -2**n to 2**n-1.  */

  /* Complain if the value overflows when considered as a signed
     number.  */

  /* Complain if the value overflows when considered as an
     unsigned number.  */
}; reloc_howto_type

The reloc_howto_type is a structure which contains all the information that libbfd needs to know to tie up a back end’s data.

struct bfd_symbol;             /* Forward declaration.  */

struct reloc_howto_struct
  /*  The type field has mainly a documentary use - the back end can
      do what it wants with it, though normally the back end's
      external idea of what a reloc number is stored
      in this field.  For example, a PC relative word relocation
      in a coff environment has the type 023 - because that's
      what the outside world calls a R_PCRWORD reloc.  */
  unsigned int type;

  /*  The value the final relocation is shifted right by.  This drops
      unwanted data from the relocation.  */
  unsigned int rightshift;

  /*  The size of the item to be relocated.  This is *not* a
      power-of-two measure.  To get the number of bytes operated
      on by a type of relocation, use bfd_get_reloc_size.  */
  int size;

  /*  The number of bits in the item to be relocated.  This is used
      when doing overflow checking.  */
  unsigned int bitsize;

  /*  The relocation is relative to the field being relocated.  */
  bfd_boolean pc_relative;

  /*  The bit position of the reloc value in the destination.
      The relocated value is left shifted by this amount.  */
  unsigned int bitpos;

  /* What type of overflow error should be checked for when
     relocating.  */
  enum complain_overflow complain_on_overflow;

  /* If this field is non null, then the supplied function is
     called rather than the normal function.  This allows really
     strange relocation methods to be accommodated (e.g., i960 callj
     instructions).  */
  bfd_reloc_status_type (*special_function)
    (bfd *, arelent *, struct bfd_symbol *, void *, asection *,
     bfd *, char **);

  /* The textual name of the relocation type.  */
  char *name;

  /* Some formats record a relocation addend in the section contents
     rather than with the relocation.  For ELF formats this is the
     distinction between USE_REL and USE_RELA (though the code checks
     for USE_REL == 1/0).  The value of this field is TRUE if the
     addend is recorded with the section contents; when performing a
     partial link (ld -r) the section contents (the data) will be
     modified.  The value of this field is FALSE if addends are
     recorded with the relocation (in arelent.addend); when performing
     a partial link the relocation will be modified.
     All relocations for all ELF USE_RELA targets should set this field
     to FALSE (values of TRUE should be looked on with suspicion).
     However, the converse is not true: not all relocations of all ELF
     USE_REL targets set this field to TRUE.  Why this is so is peculiar
     to each particular target.  For relocs that aren't used in partial
     links (e.g. GOT stuff) it doesn't matter what this is set to.  */
  bfd_boolean partial_inplace;

  /* src_mask selects the part of the instruction (or data) to be used
     in the relocation sum.  If the target relocations don't have an
     addend in the reloc, eg. ELF USE_REL, src_mask will normally equal
     dst_mask to extract the addend from the section contents.  If
     relocations do have an addend in the reloc, eg. ELF USE_RELA, this
     field should be zero.  Non-zero values for ELF USE_RELA targets are
     bogus as in those cases the value in the dst_mask part of the
     section contents should be treated as garbage.  */
  bfd_vma src_mask;

  /* dst_mask selects which parts of the instruction (or data) are
     replaced with a relocated value.  */
  bfd_vma dst_mask;

  /* When some formats create PC relative instructions, they leave
     the value of the pc of the place being relocated in the offset
     slot of the instruction, so that a PC relative relocation can
     be made just by adding in an ordinary offset (e.g., sun3 a.out).
     Some formats leave the displacement part of an instruction
     empty (e.g., m88k bcs); this flag signals the fact.  */
  bfd_boolean pcrel_offset;
}; The HOWTO Macro

The HOWTO define is horrible and will go away.

  { (unsigned) C, R, S, B, P, BI, O, SF, NAME, INPLACE, MASKSRC, MASKDST, PC }

And will be replaced with the totally magic way. But for the moment, we are compatible, so do it this way.

  HOWTO (0, 0, SIZE, 0, REL, 0, complain_overflow_dont, FUNCTION, \
         NAME, FALSE, 0, 0, IN)

This is used to fill in an empty howto entry in an array.

#define EMPTY_HOWTO(C) \
  HOWTO ((C), 0, 0, 0, FALSE, 0, complain_overflow_dont, NULL, \
         NULL, FALSE, 0, 0, FALSE)

Helper routine to turn a symbol into a relocation value.

#define HOWTO_PREPARE(relocation, symbol)               \
  {                                                     \
    if (symbol != NULL)                                 \
      {                                                 \
        if (bfd_is_com_section (symbol->section))       \
          {                                             \
            relocation = 0;                             \
          }                                             \
        else                                            \
          {                                             \
            relocation = symbol->value;                 \
          }                                             \
      }                                                 \
  } bfd_get_reloc_size


unsigned int bfd_get_reloc_size (reloc_howto_type *);

For a reloc_howto_type that operates on a fixed number of bytes, this returns the number of bytes operated on. arelent_chain

How relocs are tied together in an asection:

typedef struct relent_chain
  arelent relent;
  struct relent_chain *next;
arelent_chain; bfd_check_overflow


bfd_reloc_status_type bfd_check_overflow
   (enum complain_overflow how,
    unsigned int bitsize,
    unsigned int rightshift,
    unsigned int addrsize,
    bfd_vma relocation);

Perform overflow checking on relocation which has bitsize significant bits and will be shifted right by rightshift bits, on a machine with addresses containing addrsize significant bits. The result is either of bfd_reloc_ok or bfd_reloc_overflow. bfd_perform_relocation


bfd_reloc_status_type bfd_perform_relocation
   (bfd *abfd,
    arelent *reloc_entry,
    void *data,
    asection *input_section,
    bfd *output_bfd,
    char **error_message);

If output_bfd is supplied to this function, the generated image will be relocatable; the relocations are copied to the output file after they have been changed to reflect the new state of the world. There are two ways of reflecting the results of partial linkage in an output file: by modifying the output data in place, and by modifying the relocation record. Some native formats (e.g., basic a.out and basic coff) have no way of specifying an addend in the relocation type, so the addend has to go in the output data. This is no big deal since in these formats the output data slot will always be big enough for the addend. Complex reloc types with addends were invented to solve just this problem. The error_message argument is set to an error message if this return bfd_reloc_dangerous. bfd_install_relocation


bfd_reloc_status_type bfd_install_relocation
   (bfd *abfd,
    arelent *reloc_entry,
    void *data, bfd_vma data_start,
    asection *input_section,
    char **error_message);

This looks remarkably like bfd_perform_relocation, except it does not expect that the section contents have been filled in. I.e., it’s suitable for use when creating, rather than applying a relocation.

For now, this function should be considered reserved for the assembler.

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