ld combination has a few
differences in function compared to
mmixal (see mmixsite).
The replacement of a symbol with a GREG-allocated register
(see GREG-base) is not handled the exactly same way in
as as in
mmixal. This is apparent in the
mmixal example file
inout.mms, where different registers
with different offsets, eventually yielding the same address, are used in
the first instruction. This type of difference should however not affect
the function of any program unless it has specific assumptions about the
allocated register number.
Line numbers (in the ‘mmo’ object format) are currently not supported.
Expression operator precedence is not that of mmixal: operator precedence is that of the C programming language. It’s recommended to use parentheses to explicitly specify wanted operator precedence whenever more than one type of operators are used.
The serialize unary operator
&, the fractional division operator
‘//’, the logical not operator
! and the modulus operator
‘%’ are not available.
Symbols are not global by default, unless the option ‘--globalize-symbols’ is passed. Use the ‘.global’ directive to globalize symbols (see Global).
Operand syntax is a bit stricter with
mmixal. For example, you can’t say
addu 1,2,3, instead you
You can’t LOC to a lower address than those already visited (i.e., “backwards”).
A LOC directive must come before any emitted code.
Predefined symbols are visible as file-local symbols after use. (In the ELF file, that is—the linked mmo file has no notion of a file-local symbol.)
Some mapping of constant expressions to sections in LOC expressions is
attempted, but that functionality is easily confused and should be avoided
unless compatibility with
mmixal is required. A LOC expression to
‘0x2000000000000000’ or higher, maps to the ‘.data’ section and
lower addresses map to the ‘.text’ section (see MMIX-loc).
The code and data areas are each contiguous. Sparse programs with
far-away LOC directives will take up the same amount of space as a
contiguous program with zeros filled in the gaps between the LOC
directives. If you need sparse programs, you might try and get the wanted
effect with a linker script and splitting up the code parts into sections
(see Section). Assembly code for this, to be compatible with
mmixal, would look something like:
.if 0 LOC away_expression .else .section away,"ax" .fi
as will not execute the LOC directive and
ignores the lines with
.. This construct can be used generally to
Symbols can’t be defined twice–not even to the same value.
Instruction mnemonics are recognized case-insensitive, though the ‘IS’ and ‘GREG’ pseudo-operations must be specified in upper-case characters.
There’s no unicode support.
The following is a list of programs in ‘mmix.tar.gz’, available at
checked with the version dated 2001-08-25 (md5sum
c393470cfc86fac040487d22d2bf0172) that assemble with
mmixal but do
not assemble with
LOC to a previous address.
Redefines symbol ‘Done’.
Uses the serial operator ‘&’.