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see section Rolling Distribution Tarballs
A number chosen arbitrarily by the Automake developers.
This book is built using
We couldn’t find a use for
cycle is the situation where file ‘a.h’
‘b.h’, and ‘b.h’
#includes file ‘a.h’ – either
directly or through some longer chain of
For an explanation of name mangling See section Writing Portable C++ with GNU Autotools.
Available at ftp://sourceware.cygnus.com/pub/binutils/.
Distributed from http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~pinard/libit.
GCC must be compilable by K&R compilers so that it can be built and installed in an ANSI compiler free environment.
AIX and Windows being the main culprits.
Read Eval Print Loop.
Generally this involves indexing the symbols exported from the archive for faster linking, and to allow the archived objects to reference symbols from other objects earlier in the same archive.
Application Binary Interface: the layout of the bytes that comprise binary objects and executables: 32 or 64 bit words; procedure calling conventions; memory alignment rules; system call interface; order and type of the binary sections (data, code etc) and so on.
As is often the
case, AIX is peculiar in this respect –
ranlib adds path
information to a static archive, and must be run again after the archive
libtool knows about this, and will
automatically bless the installed library again on AIX.
When making a binary package from a virtual root directory for example.
‘AM_PROG_LIBTOOL’ if you have an
Position Independent Code – suitable for shared libraries which might be loaded to different addresses when linked by the runtime loader.
of ‘ltconfig’ is slated for migration into ‘libtool.m4’ for
a future release of
libtool, whereupon this file will no
longer be necessary.
Actually the suffix will be whatever is appropriate for the target host: such as ‘.obj’ on Windows for example.
For example, when I come to using the ‘make dist’ rule.
The GNU standard is distributed from http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards.html.
This is for
Autoconf version 2.13. Autoconf version 2.50 recommends
This is a sort
of callback function which will be called by the
generated by Automake.
By default, GNU
tar can create non-portable archives in
certain (rare) situations. To be safe, Automake arranges to use the
‘-o’ compatibility flag when GNU
tar is used.
Probably numbered 1.5.
There has been some debate in the Autoconf
community about extending Autoconf to allow new directories to be set on
configure command line. Currently the consensus seems to be
that there are too many arguments to
The most common way being to simply
This example assumes the use of GNU tar when extracting; this is standard on Linux but does not come with Solaris.
These names come from Gulliver’s Travels.
Windows does permit a program to use a forward slash to separate directories when calling routines such as ‘fopen’. However, Windows users do not expect to type forward slashes when they enter file names, and they do not expect to see forward slashes when a file name is printed.
Visit the Libtool home page at http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool for breaking news.
Not essential but will be slower without this option, see Position Independent Code.
HP-UX being the most notable exception.
As I always like to say, ‘from BeOS to Windows!’. And yes, I do think that it is a better catchphrase than ‘from AIX to Xenix’!
if you have
automake version 1.4 or older or a version of
libtool earlier than 1.4.
Architectures which use ELF and ECOFF binary format for example.
Those which use a.out binary format, for example.
If you have an early 1.3c snapshot of Libtool, you will also need to copy the ‘ltdl.m4’ file into your distribution.
This is very different to the way errors are managed when writing a custom loader for libltdl. Compare this section with Loader Errors.
See Introducing libltdl
Dmalloc is distributed from http://www.dmalloc.com.
GNU M4 permits an unlimited number of arguments, whereas other versions of M4 limit the number of addressable arguments to nine.
Which is precisely what the ‘`’ and ‘'’ characters in all of the examples in this section are.
The ‘`’ is used in grave redirection and ‘'’ for the shell’s own quote character!
Notable exceptions are GNU Bash, and both Ksh and the Bourne shell on Solaris.
This is a literal newline.
A term coined by Noah Friedman in the early days of Autoconf to denote the process of converting a package that configures itself without Autoconf to one which does.
Mingw32 home page, http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Towers/6162/gcc.html; and DJGPP home page, http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/.
since Cygwin-b20.1, I believe.
1.1.1 at the time of writing.
You can get a precompiled package from http://cygutils.netpedia.net/, also an excellent resource for other packages ported to Cygwin.
The CygUtils website is http://cygutils.netpedia.net/V1.1/.
Typically you would also have a floppy drive named ‘A:’, and a CD-ROM named ‘D:’.
See section Executing Uninstalled Binaries.
In general, a stub function will satisfy the linker’s requirements to resolve an undefined symbol at link time, but has no functionality of its own. In this context, the stubs do have some boilerplate code to pass execution flow into the correct full function in the DLL.
Some people prefer to use the term autoconfuse – if you should meet any, be sure to tell them about this book
Part of the Binutils port to Windows, and necessary to massage compiler objects into a working DLL.
This is a shell
script for Cygwin which emulates the behaviour of
GNU/Linux, available online from
The name Canadian Cross comes from the most complex case, in which three different types of systems are used. At the time that these issues were being hashed out, Canada had three national political parties.
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